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Presented Simulants of Leprosy

A. Dermatitis

  1. Cassler NM, Ashley M, Burris BS, Nguyen C. 2014. Asteatotic eczema in hypoesthetic skin. A case series. JAMA Dermatol 150(10):1088–1090.
  2. Sousa AR, Costa CO, Queiroz HM, Gonçalves PE, Gonçalves Hde S. 2010. Leprosy simulating lichenoid eruption: case report and literature review. An Bras Dermatol March-April 85(2):224–226.
  3. Yang S, Malaredes M, O’Donnell P, Levin NA. 2013. A case of Hansen’s Disease presenting as tinea versicolor. Dermatol Online J 19(4):7. (Online.)
  4. Massone C, Cavalchrini A, Clapasson A, Nunzi E. 2010. Hypopigmented macules: leprosy, atopy or pityriasis versicolor? G Ital Dermatol Venereol 145(6):779–782.
  5. Pavithran, K. 1990. Non-pruritic eczema as presenting manifestation of leprosy. Indian J Lepr 62(2):202–207.
  6. Delgado JS, Cavalcanti ML, Kac BK, Pires CL. 2013. Morphea simulating paucibacillary leprosy clinically and histopathologically. Indian J Dermatol 58(1):85.
  7. Fan J, Chang HS, Ma B. 1967. Alopecia mucinosa simulating leprosy. Arch Dermatol 495(4):354–356.
  8. Fekete E, Sarojini PA, Mock B. 1982. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy in reaction presenting as photodermatitis: A case report. Lepr Rev 53(2):115–117.
  9. Pavithran, K. 1990. Non-pruritic eczemas as presenting manifestation of leprosy. Indian J Lepr 62:202–206.
  10. Moschella SL. 1968. Onychomycosis in lepromatous leprosy. Dermatol Int 7(3):129–131.

B. Non-infectious granulomas

  1. Singh K, Raina V, Narulla AK, Singh R. 1990. Sarcoidosis masquerading as leprosy, pulmonary tuberculosis, and urolithiasis. J Assoc Physicians India 38(9):657–659.
  2. Rao R, Kaar GJ, Roa AC, Chandrashekar B, Rao L, Handahu S. 2013. Borderline leprosy masquerading as cheilitis granulomatosa: A case report. Lepr Rev 845(1):95–99.
  3. Singh G, Haneef NS. 2005. Leprosy masquerading as Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. Indian J Lepr 77:71–73.
  4. Pavithran, K. 1987. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome masquerading as tuberculoid leprosy. Indian J Lepr 59:26–29.

C. Histiocytosis

  1. Sharath Kumar BC, Nandiri AS, Niveditha SR, Gopal MG, Reeti. 2011. Generalized eruptive histiocytosis mimicking leprosy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 77(4):498–502.
  2. Abdul Razack EM, Dharmaraj S, Krishnaram S, Selvaraj AM. 1988. Multicentric reticulohistiocytois masquerading as lepromatous leprosy. Indian J Lepr 60(4):604–608.

D. Infectious granulomas

  1. Dassoni F, Abebe Z, Naafs B, Morrone A. 2013. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis resembling borderline tuberculoid leprosy: A new clinical presentation? Acta Derm Venereol 93(1):74–77.
  2. Lai S, Garg BR. 1976. Post-kalazar dermal leishmaniasis simulating leprosy (a case report). Indian J Lepr 48(1):81–83.
  3. Dupnik KM, Martins MM, Souza AT, Jeronimo SM, Nobre ML. 2012. Nodular syphilis simulating lepromatous leprosy. Lepr Rev 83(4):39–93.
  4. Pandhi D, Reddy BS, Khurana N, Agarwai S. 2005. Nodular syphilis mimicking histoid leprosy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 19(2):256–257.
  5. Copeland NK, Arora NS, Ferguson TM. 2013. Mycobacterium haemophilum masquerading as leprosy in a renal transplant patient. Case Rep Dermatol Med. 793127. doi: 1155/2013/793127. Epub.
  6. Hobbs ER, Hempstead RW. 1984. Cutaneous coccidiomycosis simulating lepromatous leprosy. Int J Dermatol 23(5):334–336.
  7. Arora S, D’Souza P, Haroon MA, Ramesh V, Kauro O, Chandoke RK. 2014. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis mimicking leprosy relapse: A diagnostic dilemma. Int J Dermatol 53(5):606–608.

E. Lymphoma and leukemia

  1. Gutte R, Kharkar V, Mahajah D, Chikhalkar S, Khopkar U. 2010. Granulomatous mycosis fungoides with hypohidrosis mimicking lepromatous leprosy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 76(6):686–690.
  2. Pratchyapriut W, Vashrangsi N, Tagami H. 2009. Granulomatous slack skin clinically and histologically masquerading as borderline leprosy in the early stages. Eur J Dermatol 19(1):88–89.
  3. Rodriguez-Acosta ED, Esquir-Pedroza L, Saeb-Lima M, Arenas-Guzmán R, Granados-Arriola J, Domínguez-Cherit J. 2013. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy mimicking mycosis fungoides. Skinmed 11(6):379–381.
  4. Balachahdran C, Srinivas CR, Singh KK, Venugapal N. 1987. Histiocytic lymphoma simulating lepromatous leprosy—a case report. Indian J Lepr 59(3):332–333.
  5. Mahajan R, Dogress S, Kaur I, Yadav S, Saikas UN, Budzihiz A. 2012. Type II reaction without erythema nodosum leprosym masquerading as lymphoma. Lepr Rev 83(4):373–383.
  6. Sevinc A, Aydogdu I. 2008. Extramedullary myeloid leukemia mimicking lepromatous leprosy. J Natl Med Assoc 100(9):1036–1038.

F. Reactions

  1. Thankappan TP, Sulochana G. 1991. Keratosis spinulosa developing in borderline-tuberculoid lesions during type I lepra reactions: Two case studies. Lepr Rev 62(1):49–52.
  2. Kou TT, Chan HL. 1987. Severe reactional states in lepromatous leprosy simulating Sweet’s syndrome. Int J Dermatol 26(8):518–520.
  3. Das T, Ghosh S, Kundu AK, Maity A. 2013. Reactional state in lepromatous leprosy simulating Sweet’s syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India 61(11):856–858.
  4. Heng YK, Chiam YT, Giam YC, Chong WS. 2011. Lepromatous leprosy in erythema nodosum leprosum reaction mimicking Sweet’s syndrome. Int J Dermatol 50(9):1124–1125.
  5. Mahajan VK, Abhinav C, Mehta KS, Chauhan PS. 2014. Erythema nodosum leprosum mimicking Sweet’s syndrome: An uncommon presentation. Lepr Rev 85(4):322–327.
  6. Shah A, Mahajan R, Ninama K, Bilimoria F. 2014. Annular bullous lesions with atypical erythema multiforme in leprosy. Lepr Rev 85(3):201–207.
  7. Vijendran P, Verma R, Vasudevan B, Mitra D, Badad A, Neema S. 2014. Rare atypical presentations in Type 2 lepra reaction: A case series. Int J Dermatol 53(3):323–326. Doi: 10.1111/ijd.12292. Epub 2013 Oct 18.
  8. Dave S, Thappa DM, Nori AV, Jayanthi S. 2003. A rare varient of erythema nodosum leprosum: A case report. Dermatol Online J 9(5):11.
  9. Pavithran K. 1992. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis in type 2 lepra reaction. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 60(1):89–91.
  10. Sampaio L, Silva L, Terroso G, Pimenta S, Brandão F, Pinto J, Prisca A, Brito J, Ventura F. 2011. Hansen’s disease mimicking a systemic vasculitis. Acta Reumatol Port 36(1):61–64.
  11. Misra DP, Parida JR, Chowdhury AC, Pani KC, Kumari N, Krishnani N, Agarwal V. 2014. Lepra reaction with lucio phenomenon mimicking cutaneous vasculitis. Case Reports Immunol 64:1989. Doi: 10.1155/2014/641989. Epub 2014 Dec 17.
  12. Moschella SL. 1967. The lepra reaction with necrotizing skin lesions. A report of six cases. Arch Dermatol 95(6):565–575.
  13. Kothiwala SK, Khandpur S, Singh MK, Durgapal P. 2015. Erythema nodosum leprosum on glans penis: Unusual manifestation of common disease. Int J Dermatol 54:1060–1063.

G. Miscellaneous

  1. Aktar M, Ali MA, Mackey DM. 1980. Lepromatous leprosy presenting as orchitis. Am J Clin Pathol 73(5):712–715.
  2. Rath D, Bhargava S, Kundu BK. 2014. Leprosy mimicking common rheumatologic entities: A trial for the clinician in the era of biologics. Case Rep Rheumatol. (Online.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/429698.
  3. Wong WS. 1987. Leprosy presenting as nodular vasculitis. Br J Dermatol 26:398.
  4. Izadyar S, Kwan JY, Gundogdu BM, Phan CH, Harati Y. 2009. Mutilating acral ulcers: The spectrum of differential diagnosis. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 10(3):126–134.
  5. Shen J, Zhang G, Yang R, Hu T, Zhou M. 2008. Three patients in a Chinese family with hereditary sensory neuropathy mimicking leprosy. Lepr Rev 79(4):441–446.
  6. Arakk GH, Dama SV, Chanda GM. 2015. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome unmasking erythema nodosum leprosum: A rare case report. Indian J Dermatol 60(1):106. doi:10.8103/0019-5158147883.
  7. Scollard DM, Joyce MP, Gillis TP. 2006. Development of leprosy type I reaction after the treatment with infliximab: A report of two cases. Clin Infect Dis 43(2):19–22.
  8. Albert JR, Cabrera A, Martiniuk F, Sanchez M, Levis WR. 2005. Leprosy masquerading as lupus. J Am Acad Dermatol 52(4):702–703.
  9. Garcia-De La Torre I. 1993. Autoimmune phenomena in leprosy, particularly antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor. J Rheumatol 20(5):900–903.
  10. Lawn SD, Wood C, Lockwood DN. 2003. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy: An immune reconstitution phenomenon in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected person. Clin Infect Dis 36(1):5–6.
  11. Couppie P, Abel S, Vorinchet H, Roussel M, Helenon R, Huerre M, Sainte-Marie D, Cabie A. 2004. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with HIV and leprosy. Arch Dermatol 140:997–1000.
  12. Chan GJ, Tang WYM, Lam WY. 2006. Histoid lepromatous leprosy presenting as keloids-like nodules. Hong Kong J Dermatol Venereol 14:83–86.

Textbooks

Differential Diagnosis of Leprosy and for the Dermatologic Simulants of Leprosy

  1. Growne SG. 1964. Differential diagnosis of leprosy, p 280–298. In Cochrane RG, Davey TF (ed), Leprosy in theory and practice, 2nd edition. Williams and Wilkins, Dunfermline, United Kingdom.
  2. Leiker L. 1985. Differential diagnosis, p 177–192. In Hastings RC (ed), Leprosy (medicine in the tropics). Churchill Livingstone, New York.
  3. Wolf K, Johnson RA, Suurmond R. 2005. Fitzpatrick’s color atlas and synopsis of clinical dermatology, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  4. Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV. 2012. Dermatology, vol I and II, 3rd ed. Elsevier, UK/USA.
  5. Gill GV, Beeching NJ. 2004. Tropical medicine, 5th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.
borderline lepromatous leprosy
borderline tuberculoid leprosy
erythema nodosum leprosum
tuberculoid leprosy
lepromatous leprosy
reversal reaction
lepra reactions
neural leprosy
pure neural
ROM
ENL
BI
BT
BL
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TT
MB
RR